1. The fact that both the lungs and the gastrointestinal system embryologically arise from the primitive gut suggests, theoretically, that intestinal changes may also occur in the lungs. 2. Pulmonary involvement probably begins simultaneously with the inflammation in the colon.
1. Current evidence indicates endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) including endoscopic muscularis dissection is technically feasible procedure for the treatment of subepithelial tumors (SETs). 2. However, selection bias is suspected from the enrolled studies. For the development of proper indication about ESD for SETs, further studies are needed.
1. Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) was better than exercise electrocardiography (ex-ECG) for prediction of cardiovascular long-term outcome. 2. No evidence that combination of CTCA and exECG was superior to CTCA was seen. 3. CTCA alone may be a valuable test to predict cardiovascular event in low to intermediate risk population.
1. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was higher in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation compared with those with stable COPD and healthy controls, and decreased in convalescent period of COPD exacerbation. 2. NLR showed a significant correlation with the 6-minute walking distance, the modified Medical Research Council scale, and the BODE index. 3. NLR was an independent predictor with a borderline significance for respiratory hospitalization in patients with COPD.
1. In the general Korean population aged 50 years and older, osteopenia and osteoporosis are more common in adults with airflow limitations. 2. After adjusting for confounding factors, the association between pulmonary function and bone mineral density disappeared. The high prevalence of osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients is associated with other factors but not with impairments in pulmonary function.
1. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was very high in the high-risk Korean adults. CKD stage 3 was most common. 2. Older age, concomitant diabetes and hypertension, higher body mass index, and uncontrolled underlying diseases were independently associated with the presence of CKD. 3. These findings suggest that a screening method for early detection of CKD in high-risk populations is warranted in Korea