1. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression is dependent on nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1).
2. NOD1 increases ICAM-1 expression through the activation of nuclear factor kB.
3. NOD1 plays an important role in the epithelial recognition of pathogenic bacteria.
1. Eetecavir is well tolerated and clinically effective in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B in a real-world setting.
2. Regardless of the causality with entecavir therapy, ‘gastrointestinal system disorder’ including heartburn, dyspepsia, nausea, and upper abdominal pain was most common adverse event.
3. Concomitant medication was high risk factor influencing adverse event incidence rates of patients under entecavir therapy so, patients with concomitant medicines should be closely monitored.
1. It is important that clinicians, particularly those in tertiary care hospital centers where
a great number of ambulatory procedures are performed, be aware of the risk of endocarditis in patients who have undergone invasive procedures that could potentially cause bacteremia.
2. Prompt diagnosis by echocardiography and active management would be warranted if nosocomial infective endocarditis is suspected.
1. The apolipoprotein (Apo) B/ApoA-I ratio was significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level below 100 mg/dL.
2. Higher LDL-C levels were not always associated with a higher prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in T2DM patients.