Hilar cholangiocarcinoma has an extremely poor prognosis and is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Palliative management plays an important role in the treatment of patients with inoperable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Surgical, percutaneous, and endoscopic biliary drainage are three modalities..
A "biloma" is a loculated collection of bile located outside of the biliary tree. It can be caused by traumatic, iatrogenic or spontaneous rupture of the biliary tree. Prior reports have documented an association of biloma with abdominal trauma, surgery and other primary causes, but spontaneous b..