Renal hypoxia is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Pentoxifyllin (PTX), a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is used to attenuate peripheral vascular diseases. To determine whether PTX can improve renal hypoxia, we investigated its eff..
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) stimulates renal fibrosis in various renal diseases including IgA nephropathy.
We examined whether immunoglobulin A (IgA) stimulated TGF-β1 synthesis in human mesangial cells (MCs), and whe..